Category: Cosmology…..


A LEADING astronomer has discovered our universe may not be the only one and that there might be a parallel or alternate universe.

Ranga-Ram Chary was recently mapping the Cosmic Microwave Background – the light which was left from the Big Bang – when he noticed a “mysterious glow”.

Chary says that typically when scanning the Cosmic Microwave Background, you would find nothing but noise, but he added in his research paper that the bright spots were 4,500 times brighter than they should be.

He wrote in the study, Spectral Variations of the Sky: Constraints on Alternate Universes, that there is a 30 per cent chance that the glow is nothing out of the ordinary, but claimed that there is a chance it is being caused by two universes colliding.

He said: “It could also possibly be due to the collision of our universe with an alternate universe whose baryon to photon ratio is a factor of around 65 larger than ours.”

Chary, who is the US Planck Data Center’s project manager in California, added that another universe could be “leaking” into our own.

If either prove to be true, then it would mean that our universe is simply “a region within an eternally inflating super-region.”

However, other astronomers are skeptical of Chary’s claims, with Jens Chluba of the University of Cambridge, said: “This signal is one of the fingerprints of our own universe. Other universes should leave a different mark.”

However, Chluba added that more research is needed before a conclusion is reached.

He said: “To explain the signals that Dr Chary found with the cosmological recombination radiation, one needs a large enhancement in the number of [other particles] relative to photons.

“In the realm of alternative universes, this is entirely possible.”

 

Source: Parallel universe BREAKTHROUGH: Expert discovers we could be part of alternate reality | Science | News | Daily Express

Advertisements

Using data from NASA’s Great Observatories, astronomers have found the best evidence yet for cosmic seeds in the early universe that should grow into supermassive black holes.

Researchers combined data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer Space Telescope to identify these possible black hole seeds. They discuss their findings in a paper that will appear in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

“Our discovery, if confirmed, explains how these monster black holes were born,” said Fabio Pacucci of Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS) in Pisa, Italy, who led the study. “We found evidence that supermassive black hole seeds can form directly from the collapse of a giant gas cloud, skipping any intermediate steps.”

Scientists believe a supermassive black hole lies in the center of nearly all large galaxies, including our own Milky Way. They have found that some of these supermassive black holes, which contain millions or even billions of times the mass of the sun, formed less than a billion years after the start of the universe in the Big Bang.

One theory suggests black hole seeds were built up by pulling in gas from their surroundings and by mergers of smaller black holes, a process that should take much longer than found for these quickly forming black holes.

These new findings suggest instead that some of the first black holes formed directly when a cloud of gas collapsed, bypassing any other intermediate phases, such as the formation and subsequent destruction of a massive star.

“There is a lot of controversy over which path these black holes take,” said co-author Andrea Ferrara, also of SNS. “Our work suggests we are narrowing in on an answer, where the black holes start big and grow at the normal rate, rather than starting small and growing at a very fast rate.”

The researchers used computer models of black hole seeds combined with a new method to select candidates for these objects from long-exposure images from Chandra, Hubble and Spitzer.

The team found two strong candidates for black hole seeds. Both of these matched the theoretical profile in the infrared data, including being very red objects, and they also emit X-rays detected with Chandra. Estimates of their distance suggest they may have been formed when the universe was less than a billion years old

“Black hole seeds are extremely hard to find and confirming their detection is very difficult,” said Andrea Grazian, a co-author from the National Institute for Astrophysics in Italy. “However, we think our research has uncovered the two best candidates to date.”

The team plans to obtain further observations in X-rays and infrared to check whether these objects have more of the properties expected for black hole seeds. Upcoming observatories, such as NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope and the European Extremely Large Telescope, will aid in future studies by detecting the light from more distant and smaller black holes. Scientists currently are building the theoretical framework needed to interpret the upcoming data, with the aim of finding the first black holes in the universe.

“As scientists, we cannot say at this point that our model is ‘the one’,” said Pacucci. “What we really believe is that our model is able to reproduce the observations without requiring unreasonable assumptions.”

Explore the image from this release on HubbleSite (http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2016/19/).

NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program while the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra’s science and flight operations.

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore conducts Hubble science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy in Washington.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission, whose science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center. Spacecraft operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Littleton, Colorado.

Source: NASA Telescopes Find Clues For How Giant Black Holes Formed So Quickly – NASA Spitzer Space Telescope

For decades it has been thought that planets take at least tens of millions of years to gradually coalesce from the dust and rubble that collects around young stars.

But scientists might soon have to rethink theories explaining how planets are born after new evidence of baby planets orbiting in a cloud of dust surrounding a nearby star.

The planets are so young – less than a million years – they challenge the accepted theories of how planets are made, showing they can form much more quickly than first thought.

The image, captured using the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (Alma) in Chile’s Atacama Desert, showed what appears to be gaps in the disk, but debate raged over whether worlds could actually form in the system that quickly, so more data was needed.

But new evidence has now been gathered, and it supports the theory that planets are causing the gaps.

The disks around young stars contain gas in addition to the dust, with 100 times more gas than dust.

Scientists thought if the gaps in the dust were not caused by planets, the gas surrounding the stars would not have similar gaps in the same places.

A team of researchers in Taiwan and Japan set out to look at the distribution of gas, and they found the gaps in the gas corresponded to the same place at the dust gaps.

‘To our surprise, these gaps in the gas overlap with the dust gaps,’ said Dr Hsi-Wei Yen at Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics in Taiwan, the lead author of the paper. ‘This supports the idea that the gaps are the footprints left by baby planets.’

The team also found that the gas density is high enough to harbour an infant planet around the inner gap.

‘Our results indicate that planets start to form much earlier than what we expected.’ Dr Yen added.

Comparing the structure of the inner gap to theoretical models, the team estimates the planet has a mass 0.8 times that of Jupiter.

The system is 450 light-years from Earth and 22 billion miles (35.8 billion km) across.

By comparison, ours is about 6.6 billion miles (9 billion km) across, when measured to the outermost planet, Neptune

But the origin of the outer gap is still unclear.

The team suggested it could be a planet 2.1 times more massive than Jupiter, but the present research cannot eliminate the possibility that the gap is made by the drag between the dust particles and the gas.

To solve this question, more data is needed.

‘Our research clearly demonstrates that applying new data analysis techniques to existing data can uncover important facts, further increasing Alma’s already high scientific potential,’ said Professor Shigehisa Takakuwa from Kagoshima University, Japan.

‘Applying the same method to the datasets for other young stars, we expect to construct a systematic model of planet formation.’

A team of researchers in Taiwan and Japan set out to look at the distribution of gas, and they found the gaps in the gas corresponded to the same place at the dust gaps. The star is surrounded by the disk (shown in red) and thick envelope

Source: Infant worlds born from dust around star in one million years | Daily Mail Online

Dwarf galaxies are different beasts. They are diminutive and dim, sometimes only a diffuse gaggle of stars.

The stars are enveloped in a big blob of dark matter

While dwarf galaxies can be isolated, floating in space alone, they are also thought to hide around their bigger, more majestic counterparts, orbiting them like moons around planets.

The Milky Way, for instance, has nearly 50 such companions. Also called satellite galaxies, they are relatively tiny, weighing roughly 10,000 times less than the Milky Way, with some containing only a few thousand stars.

Like in all galaxies, the stars are enveloped in a big blob of dark matter, the unknown stuff that comprises around a quarter of the Universe. The dark matter accounts for most of the dwarf galaxy’s mass, forming the gravitational glue that binds the galaxy together.

The biggest of the Milky Way’s satellites are the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, which appear as two fuzzy patches to the naked eye. The other satellite galaxies, however, are small and faint, detectable only with telescopes.

Astronomers found a handful by the mid-20th Century, but the majority remained unseen until the last decade, when modern astronomical surveys discovered dozens.

Cold dark matter fundamentally is a theory that says little things formed first

This was a remarkable revelation. In the late 1990s, before so many were found, astronomers were in a crisis, Treu says. Computer simulations were revealing a glaring discrepancy between how many satellite galaxies astronomers saw and what was predicted by their prized theory of cosmology: cold dark matter (CDM).

Dark matter, the theory posits, is cold: its particles move around space slowly (in this case, much slower than light). Because they were not zipping around too fast in the early Universe, their mutual gravity could corral them into small, dense clumps. These clumps eventually attracted the gas needed to form stars and become dwarf galaxies. Over time, these dwarfs merged together and became big galaxies like the Milky Way.

“Cold dark matter fundamentally is a theory that says little things formed first,” says James Bullock, an astrophysicist at the University of California, Irvine. “They merged together to form bigger things over time.”

Source: BBC – Earth – The hunt for invisible dwarf galaxies

Violent eruptions from our sun with the force of a thousand trillion exploding atomic bombs created our planet as we know it today, a new study has claimed.

Scientists are claiming that the event, which took place four billion years ago when our solar system’s star only shone with 70% of its current brightness, saw the sun spewing enormous superflares.

Because the sun was at a reduced level of brightness at the time, Earth was an icy rock.

And a new study is now claiming that particles from the superflares were therefore able to seep into earth’s nitrogen-rich atmosphere.

This is said to have changed the chemical conditions on our planet and enabling the building blocks for life.

The solar particles managed to split up the nitrogen molecules into atoms, while carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was split into oxygen and carbon atoms.

This allowed free-roaming oxygen to pair with nitrogen and create nitrous oxide – a greenhouse gas which is 300 times more powerful than carbon dioxide when it comes to warming the atmosphere.

As a result, Earth was able to brew and incubate life.

The findings were published in the latest edition of Nature Geoscience by a team of scientists from the Goddard Space Flight Centre at NASA.

Vladimir Airapetian, a solar scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, said: “Back then Earth received only about 70 percent of the energy from the sun than it does today.

“That means Earth should have been an icy ball. Instead, geological evidence says it was a warm globe with liquid water. We call this the Faint Young Sun Paradox.

“Our new research shows that solar storms could have been central to warming Earth.”

Scientists from NASA came to the conclusion by searching for similar stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way.

They placed these sun-like stars in order according to their age and, from analysing data, found the sun was fainter four billion years ago.

NASA’s Kepler mission found stars resembling a young sun were producing ten enormous explosions known as superflares everyday.

Earth now experiences these sorts of eruptions once every 100 years.

The influx of solar particles may also have provided the energy to create the complex molecules such as RNA and DNA which eventually seeded life.

Mr Airapetian added: “As the particles from the space weather travelled down the magnetic field lines, they would have slammed into abundant nitrogen molecules in the atmosphere.

“Changing the atmosphere’s chemistry turns out to have made all the difference for life on Earth.”

The work is part of the Kepler mission, which centres around a space observatory launched in 2009 that surveys the Milky Way for Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone.

Read more: Huge sinkhole swallows cars and tree seconds after gaping chasm appears in city centre

William Danchi, principal investigator of the project at Goddard, added: “We want to gather all this information together, how close a planet is to the star, how energetic the star is, how strong the planet’s magnetosphere is in order to help search for habitable planets around stars near our own and throughout the galaxy.

Source: The sun ‘lashed out with the power of a thousand trillion exploding atomic bombs’ to create our Earth – Mirror Online

%d bloggers like this: